Although Dutch architects have been influenced by classical styles and international trends since the Middle Ages, they have developed their own ideas and designed and popularized their own products. Dutch Renaissance architecture, for instance, was exported to Scandinavian cities. The fragmented political character of the country during the period of the Republic, however, did not lead to huge buildings. The stadtholders could build only small palaces, and the presence of several religious denominations meant relatively small churches. Rich merchants and regents, on the other hand, commissioned architects (e.g., Lieven de Key [1560–1627] and Hendrick de Keyser) to build large (step-roofed, Dutch gable, and neck-gable) houses and public buildings, such as the highly admired Amsterdam City Hall (by Jacob van Campen). Neoclassical buildings were characteristic of the 19th century, for ex ample, those by Petrus Cuypers. New techniques and materials, com bined with the need of other types of buildings, produced a renewal in the 20th century. Hendrik Berlagewas one of the first architects to ex plore a new rational style. His colleagues from the Amsterdam School, on the other hand, chose the form as their basic principle. They designed several residential areas. Rotterdam houses the Netherlands Architec ture Institute, in a striking building by architect Jo Coenen (1949– ) from 1993. Some other famous Dutch architects from the last century have been Marinus Jan Granpre Moliere (1883–1972), Willem Dudok, Gerrit Rietveld,Jacobus Oud, and Rem Koolhaas.
   See also LAUWERIKS, Johannes Ludovicus Matheus (1864–1932); POST, Pieter (1608–1669).

Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. . 2012.


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